Annotated Bibliography

Annotated bibliography is an alphabetical list of research sources. An annotated bibliography provides a summary of each source and an explanation about the relevance of the source to the research. The following is an annotated bibliography on why “Marine Animals should remain in their Aquatic Park Homes” The paper provides a list of five sources. Go through it to get a better understanding on how to write an annotated bibliography for any subject. If you need help on original annotated bibliography, an essay research paper or dissertation, place an order here. You can also send us a direct message to

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Annotated Bibliography: Marine Animals should remain in their Aquatic Park Homes

Bakker, E. S., Pagès, J. F., Arthur, R., & Alcoverro, T. (2016). Assessing the role of large herbivores in the structuring and functioning of freshwater and marine angiosperm ecosystems. Ecography, 39(2), 162-179.

In the article, “Assessing the role of large herbivores in the structuring and functioning of freshwater and marine angiosperm ecosystem,” the authors claim that herbivores like hippopotamuses have important roles in aquatic ecosystem even though they can cause severe impacts on the terrestrial system. The herbivorous animals regulate the number of plants submerged in water and the species composition (Bakker, Pages, Auther & Alcoverro 2016).  Herbivores are grouped into different groups depending on their habitat, movement ecology, and diet. The groups include; semi-aquatic herbivores like beavers. Permanent aquatic herbivores like turtles and terrestrial species. The herbivorous animals from different groups especially large ones bring a significant change which maintains the standard environmental expectations of the aquatic ecosystem. The authors have therefore used the observational method to write the roles of marine animals.

The information contained in his article concerning marine animals is right. Herbivores play a very significant role in controlling plants in the in marine areas. They reduce the amount of unwanted plants beds and animals like turtles spread the nutrients in the ecosystem. The authors’ method is appropriate in this field of research.The effect of large terrestrial herbivores on the structure and functioning of the ecosystems they inhabit is linked to the particular requirements of being large. Their size, feeding choices,  metabolic  requirements,  social  behavior,  movement patterns and other life history traits work together to make many large herbivores important ecosystem engineers (Bakker 2016).

Brando, S., Bowles, A. E., Böye, M., Dudzinski, K. M., van Elk, N., Lucke, K., & … Wahlberg, M. (2016). Proceedings of Marine Mammal Welfare Workshops Hosted in the Netherlands and the USA in 2012. Aquatic Mammals, 42(3), 392-416.

In the article, “Proceedings of marine mammal welfare workshops hosted in the Netherlands and the USA,” it is not healthy for marine animals to live in zoos due to lack of enough space and the environment. Marine animals like bottlenose dolphins require a pool with a minimum depth of 3.5 m and 275 square meters. Keeping dolphins in a pool is making them captives because they reach 3.8 meters deep while in the water (Brando, Bowles, Boye, Dudzinski & Wahlberg 2016). The pool does not provide natural substrates, waves, soft substrates, and currents. Marine animals kept in a closed place lack the freedom to hide or look for their food. The ratio of the water and land is a variant, and it does not provide the essential needs that animals like sea lions need.

It is not good to keep a dolphin in captive even if they are entertaining. They require a suitable environment in the ocean which the pool cannot provide. Dolphins, like swimming to long areas and therefore, pull, cannot provide an area similar to an ocean. Besides, the Dolphins search for food themselves, but when people put them in a closed area, then they fail to have liberty for hunting. Furthermore, caged marine animals are prone to diseases due to the dirty water which might lead to death while they are still young. Marine creatures are therefore supposed to remain in their aquatic environment because it provides all the requirements for animals. According to Brando (2016), “Research using behavioral observations, physiological studies, and other methods is still highly necessary to develop our understanding of the biology of wild captive marine animals.” (Brando, 2016. p.392),

Liu, T., Wang, Y., Chuang, L. Z., & Chen, C. (2016). Conservation of the Eastern Taiwan Strait Chinese White Dolphin (Sousa Chinensis): Fishers’ Perspectives and Management Implications. Plos ONE, 11(8), 1-15.

In the article, “conservation of the eastern Taiwan Strait Chinese white dolphin (souse chinensis): fishers’ perspectives and management,” the white dolphins are in danger of extinction. The dolphins are at risk of extinction because of their habitats are vanishing, pollution, fishing, and underwater pollution. There is need to protect the white Chinese dolphins from extinction. The Taiwanese government is planning to protect marine animals by appointing Major Wildlife Habitat (MWH) a protecting area. According to the research, fishers agree to conserve Chinese white dolphin, but they are not willing to involve in the planning of the conservation (Liu, Wang, Chuang & Chen 2016). The fishing individuals prefer to do temporary fishing as a way of preventing the extinction of the dolphins.

Interference of marine areas by people endangers the life of animals. Illegal fishing and overfishing are the primary reasons why aquatic animals are vanishing. Overfishing reduces the number aquatic animals in water bodies because fishers fish both small and big fish from the water. It is, therefore, important for the government to protect marine animals by protecting their habitats from pollution. Besides, individuals who do the fishing should avoid overfishing and contribute in conserving both aquatic animals and their habitats.  As Liu (2016) observed,  “Numerous countries have designated marine protected areas (MPAs) in response to the global problem of overfishing and species extinction” (Liu 2016, p4).


Bowen, W. D., & Lidgard, D. (2013). Marine mammal culling programs: review of effects on predator and prey populations. Mammal Review, 43(3), 207-220.

Carnivorous animals comprise of 270 species representing 11 groups of mammals from both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. The species regulate the functioning of the environment and the population of preys available. The increase of human activities has led to close contact with people and animals causing conflicts. Individuals, therefore, regulate the presence of animals through culling to reduce the dispute and protect domestic animals (Bowen & Lidgard 2013. Culling is mainly done to protect animals from predators. For instance, culling is done to protect fish in marine areas and domestic animals.

When aquatic animals are killed to protect fish, they are made to extinct. The author’s opinion of regulating carnivores through culling is not a good idea. It is important to look for other alternatives on how to protect animals rather than killing others to protect the rest. Wild animals are important to each other in a way or another. For instance, some aquatic animals like turtle consume some aquatic plants and spread nutrients in marine habitat which is important for fish. However, the turtle is an omnivorous animal which means it can feed on small fish. (Bowen & lidgard (2013) observes, “The perceived conflict between harvesters and marine mammals underlies recent calls for increased whaling in the context of ecosystem management and the ‘whales eat fish’ argument.” (Bowen & lidgard, 2013. p205).


Brando, S., Bowles, A. E., Böye, M., Dudzinski, K. M., van Elk, N., Lucke, K., & … Wahlberg, M. (2016). Proceedings of Marine Mammal Welfare Workshops Hosted in the Netherlands and the USA in 2012. Aquatic Mammals, 42(3), 392-416.

Marine animals have been kept captive in zoos and aquaria for more than a century. The animals, for example, dolphins are trained to entertain people on the shows. However, individual dealing with the aquatic animals in zoos are supposed to learn how to improve their habitats, well-fare, and health. There is a need for a study of the animal ecology, behavior, physiology and cognition (Brando, Bowles, Boye, Dudzinski, Lucke & Wahlberg 2016). The research on mammals can help people to know how to manage the aquatic animals without causing harm.

Marine mammals are supposed to get good care even if they are used to entertain people. The animals have health, and they get adapted to a particular environment. “A change of a habitat which is limited in movement and has different climate is risking the health of animals.” (Brando et al, 2016. p.392). However, it is significant for people to put in captive young animals so that they grow and adapt to a certain particular environment rather than taking a grown up one.

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